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ABC-TV announced to all stations that there would be a special report following Lewinsky's testimony before Congress, then the special report was pre-empted by the report of the missile attacks.
The combination of the timing of that attack and Operation Desert Fox led to accusations of a Wag the Dog situation. Other critics, such as former U.
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , said the attacks did not go far enough: "I would be amazed if a three-day campaign made a decisive difference," Kissinger said just after the operation ended.
It doesn't make any significant difference because in six months to a year they will be back to where they are and we cannot keep repeating these attacks.
If Saddam is still there, if he's rearming, if the sanctions are lifted, we will have lost, no matter what spin we put on it. It is speculated that there were dozens of Iraqi civilians killed by missiles that missed their targets, hundreds in the Iraqi military, and no U.
While the bombing was ongoing, the Vanguards of Conquest issued a communique to Islamist groups calling for attacks against the United States "for its arrogance" in bombing Iraq.
According to Charles Duelfer , after the bombing the Iraqi ambassador to the UN told him, "If we had known that was all you would do, we would have ended the inspections long ago.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Operation Desert Fox. Iraqi no-fly zones conflict.
Persian Gulf Wars. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. January Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 15 August Archived from the original on 25 February Only the delivery of the soldiers, equipment and fuel by the C aircraft went according to plan.
The landing was made under blacked-out conditions using the improvised infrared landing light system installed by Carney on the airstrip, visible only through night vision goggles.
The heavily loaded Dragon 1 required four passes to determine that there were no obstructions on the airstrip [Note 4] and to align with the runway.
The second and third MCs landed using both runways and discharged the remainder of the Delta soldiers, after which Dragon 1 and 2 took off at to make room for the three ECs and the eight RHDs.
Dragon 1 and 2 were to return to base to allow the crews to prepare for the second-night operations. Soon after the first crews landed and began securing Desert One , a civilian Iranian bus with a driver and 43 passengers was stopped while traveling on the road, which now served as the runway for the aircraft.
The bus was forced to halt by the Rangers and the passengers were detained aboard Republic 3. The truck's passenger was killed, but the driver managed to escape in an accompanying pickup truck.
As the tanker truck was thought to be engaged in clandestine smuggling, the driver was not considered to pose a security threat to the mission.
While en route, RHDs Bluebeard 6 made an emergency landing in the desert, when a sensor indicated a cracked rotor blade. Its crew was picked up by Bluebeard 8.
The remaining helicopters ran into an unexpected weather phenomenon known as a haboob  an enormous, nearly opaque cloud of fine dust.
Bluebeard 5 flew into the haboob, but abandoned the mission and returned to the Nimitz when electrical problems disabled flight instruments and flying without visual references proved impossible.
The remaining six helicopters reached Desert One , 50 to 90 minutes behind schedule. Bluebeard 2 arrived last at Desert One at with a malfunctioning secondary hydraulic system, leaving only one hydraulic system to control the aircraft.
With only five fully serviceable helicopters now remaining to transport the men and equipment to Desert Two minimum of six aircraft was the planned mission's abort threshold , the various commanders reached a stalemate.
Senior helicopter pilot Seiffert refused to use unsafe Bluebeard 2 on the mission, while Beckwith field commander for ground forces refused to consider reducing his trained rescue team's size.
Kyle the field aviation commander , therefore, recommended to Vaught that the mission be aborted. The recommendation was passed on by satellite radio up to the President.
After two and a half hours on the ground, the presidential abort confirmation was received. Fuel consumption calculations showed that the extra 90 minutes idling on the ground waiting for the abort confirmation order had made fuel critical for one of the ECs.
When it became clear that only six helicopters would arrive at Desert One , Kyle had authorized the ECs to transfer 1, US gallons 3, L from the bladders to their own main fuel tanks, but Republic 4 had already expended all of its bladder fuel refueling three of the helicopters and had none to transfer.
To make it to the air tanker refueling track without running out of fuel, it had to leave immediately and was already loaded with part of the Delta team.
In addition, RH Bluebeard 4 needed additional fuel, requiring it to be moved to the opposite side of the road. To accomplish both actions, Bluebeard 3 piloted by Maj.
James Schaefer  had to be moved from directly behind the EC The aircraft could not be moved by ground taxi and had to be moved by hover taxi flying a short distance at low speed and altitude.
As the Controller attempted to back away, Bluebeard 3 's pilot perceived he was drifting backward engulfed in a dust cloud, the pilot only had the Controller as a point of reference and thus attempted to "correct" this situation by applying forward stick to maintain the same distance from the rearward moving marshaller.
In the ensuing explosion and fire, eight servicemen died: five of the fourteen USAF aircrew in the EC, and three of the five USMC aircrew in the RH, with only the helicopter's pilot and co-pilot both badly burned surviving.
The helicopter crews boarded the ECs. Five RH aircraft were left behind mostly intact, some damaged by shrapnel. They could not be destroyed, because they were loaded with ammunition and any fire or explosion would have endangered the Cs.
The ECs carried the remaining forces back to the intermediate airfield at Masirah Island, where two C medical evacuation aircraft from the staging base at Wadi Abu Shihat, Egypt [Note 8] picked up the injured personnel, helicopter crews, Rangers and Delta Force members, and returned to Wadi Kena.
The American bodies were later returned to the United States and buried at various locations across the country. The eight servicemen who died included three Marines Sgt.
John D. Harvey, of Roanoke, Virginia; Cpl. George N. Holmes Jr. Although the Iraqi military committed human rights abuses during the invasion, the alleged incidents that received the most publicity in the US were fabrications of the public relations firm hired by the government of Kuwait to persuade Americans to support military intervention.
Among many other means of influencing US opinion, such as distributing books on Iraqi atrocities to US soldiers deployed in the region, "Free Kuwait" T-shirts and speakers to college campuses, and dozens of video news releases to television stations, the firm arranged for an appearance before a group of members of the US Congress in which a young woman identifying herself as a nurse working in the Kuwait City hospital described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators and letting them die on the floor.
The story helped tip both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq: six Congressmen said the testimony was enough for them to support military action against Iraq and seven Senators referenced the testimony in debate.
The Senate supported the military actions in a 52—47 vote. However, a year after the war, this allegation was revealed to be a fabrication.
The young woman who had testified was found to be a member of Kuwait's Royal Family and the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the US. This prompted a reexamination by Amnesty International , which had originally promoted an account alleging even greater numbers of babies torn from incubators than the original fake testimony.
After finding no evidence to support it, the organization issued a retraction. President Bush then repeated the incubator allegations on television.
In reality, the Iraqi Army did commit various well-documented crimes during its occupation of Kuwait, such as the summary execution without trial of three brothers, after which their bodies were stacked and left to decay in a public street.
The Gulf War began with an extensive aerial bombing campaign on 16 January For 42 consecutive days and nights, the coalition forces subjected Iraq to one of the most intensive air bombardments in military history.
The coalition flew over , sorties , dropping 88, tonnes of bombs,  which widely destroyed military and civilian infrastructure.
A day after the deadline set in Resolution , the coalition launched a massive air campaign, which began the general offensive codenamed Operation Desert Storm.
The priority was the destruction of Iraq's Air Force and anti-aircraft facilities. The next targets were command and communication facilities.
Saddam Hussein had closely micromanaged Iraqi forces in the Iran—Iraq War, and initiative at lower levels was discouraged. Coalition planners hoped that Iraqi resistance would quickly collapse if deprived of command and control.
The air campaign's third and largest phase targeted military targets throughout Iraq and Kuwait: Scud missile launchers, weapons research facilities, and naval forces.
About a third of the coalition's air power was devoted to attacking Scuds, some of which were on trucks and therefore difficult to locate.
US and British special operations forces had been covertly inserted into western Iraq to aid in the search for and destruction of Scuds. Iraqi anti-aircraft defenses, including man-portable air-defense systems , were surprisingly ineffective against enemy aircraft, and the coalition suffered only 75 aircraft losses in over , sorties, 44 due to Iraqi action.
Two of these losses are the result of aircraft colliding with the ground while evading Iraqi ground-fired weapons. Iraq's government made no secret that it would attack if invaded.
Foreign Minister, if war starts Five hours after the first attacks, Iraq's state radio broadcast declared that "The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins.
These missile attacks were to continue throughout the war. Iraq fired 88 Scud missiles during the war's seven weeks.
Iraq hoped to provoke a military response from Israel. The Iraqi government hoped that many Arab states would withdraw from the Coalition, as they would be reluctant to fight alongside Israel.
Israel prepared to militarily retaliate, as its policy for the previous 40 years had always been retaliation. However, President Bush pressured Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir not to retaliate and withdraw Israeli jets, fearing that if Israel attacked Iraq, the other Arab nations would either desert the coalition or join Iraq.
It was also feared that if Israel used Syrian or Jordanian airspace to attack Iraq, they would intervene in the war on Iraq's side or attack Israel.
The coalition promised to deploy Patriot missiles to defend Israel if it refrained from responding to the Scud attacks. The Scud missiles targeting Israel were relatively ineffective, as firing at extreme range resulted in a dramatic reduction in accuracy and payload.
According to the Jewish Virtual Library , Iraqi attacks killed 74 Israelis: two directly and the rest from suffocation and heart attacks.
As a result, Israel's government issued gas masks to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas.
It has been suggested that the sturdy construction techniques used in Israeli cities, coupled with the fact that Scuds were only launched at night, played an important role in limiting the number of casualties from Scud attacks.
In response to the threat of Scuds on Israel, the US rapidly sent a Patriot missile air defense artillery battalion to Israel along with two batteries of MIM Patriot missiles for the protection of civilians.
The Dutch Defense Ministry later stated that the military use of the Patriot missile system was largely ineffective, but its psychological value for the affected populations was high.
Coalition air forces were also extensively exercised in "Scud hunts" in the Iraqi desert, trying to locate the camouflaged trucks before they fired their missiles at Israel or Saudi Arabia.
On the ground, special operations forces also infiltrated Iraq, tasked with locating and destroying Scuds - including the ill-fated Bravo Two Zero patrol of the SAS.
Once special operations were combined with air patrols, the number of attacks fell sharply, then increased slightly as Iraqi forces adjusted to coalition tactics.
As the Scud attacks continued, the Israelis grew increasingly impatient, and considered taking unilateral military action against Iraq.
On 22 January , a Scud missile hit the Israeli city of Ramat Gan , after two coalition Patriots failed to intercept it. Three elderly people suffered fatal heart attacks, another 96 people were injured, and 20 apartment buildings were damaged.
At one point, Israeli commandos boarded helicopters prepared to fly into Iraq, but the mission was called off after a phone call from US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, reporting on the extent of coalition efforts to destroy Scuds and emphasizing that Israeli intervention could endanger US forces.
In addition to the attacks on Israel, 47 Scud missiles were fired into Saudi Arabia, and one missile was fired at Bahrain and another at Qatar. The missiles were fired at both military and civilian targets.
One Saudi civilian was killed, and 78 others were injured. No casualties were reported in Bahrain or Qatar.
The Saudi government issued all its citizens and expatriates with gas masks [ citation needed ] in the event of Iraq using missiles with chemical or biological warheads.
The government broadcast alerts and 'all clear' messages over television to warn citizens during Scud attacks. On 29 January, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry.
Both sides suffered casualties, although Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces.
Eleven Americans were killed in two separate friendly fire incidents, an additional 14 US airmen were killed when their AC gunship was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, and two US soldiers were captured during the battle.
Saudi and Qatari forces had a total of 18 dead. Iraqi forces in Khafji had 60— dead and captured. The Battle of Khafji was an example of how air power could single-handedly hinder the advance of enemy ground forces.
Upon learning of Iraqi troop movements, coalition aircraft were diverted to attack an advancing column consisting of two armored divisions in battalion-sized units.
Precision stand-off attacks were conducted during the night and through to the next day. Iraqi vehicle losses included tanks, armored personnel carriers, and 89 mobile artillery pieces.
Some crews simply abandoned their vehicles upon realizing that they could be destroyed by guided bombs, stopping the divisions from massing for an organized attack on the town.
One Iraqi soldier, who had fought in the Iran—Iraq War, remarked that his brigade "had sustained more punishment from allied airpower in 30 minutes at Khafji than in eight years of fighting against Iran.
Task Force 1—41 was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February , and to conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February This joint effort would become known as Task Force Iron.
On 15 February 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector observing American forces.
They were engaged with artillery fire from 4—3 FA. For the next hour the Task Force fought several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units.
The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4—3 FA. Task Force Infantry was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February and conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February Around guns from multiple nations participated in the artillery barrage.
Over 14, rounds were fired during these missions. By the end of these raids Iraqi artillery assets had all but ceased to exist. One Iraqi unit that was totally destroyed during the preparation was the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division Artillery Group.
On 24 February the 1st Cavalry Division conducted a couple artillery missions against Iraqi artillery units. Task Force Infantry was given the task of breaching Iraq's initial defensive positions along the Iraq—Saudi Arabia border.
These defensive positions were occupied by a brigade-sized element. A series of battles unfolded resulting in heavy Iraqi casualties and the Iraqis being removed from their defensive positions with many becoming prisoners of war.
Some escaped to be killed or captured by other coalition forces. The 1st Infantry Division's Task Force Infantry cleared four lanes simultaneously through an enemy fortified trench system while inflicting heavy casualties on Iraqi forces.
The ground campaign consisted of three or possibly four of the largest tank battles in American military history.
The US 3rd Armored Division destroyed approximately enemy combat vehicles during this particular encounter with Iraqi forces.
US decoy attacks by air attacks and naval gunfire the night before Kuwait's liberation were designed to make the Iraqis believe the main coalition ground attack would focus on central Kuwait.
For months, American units in Saudi Arabia had been under almost constant Iraqi artillery fire, as well as threats from Scud missiles and chemical attacks.
They encountered trenches, barbed wire, and minefields. However, these positions were poorly defended, and were overrun in the first few hours.
Several tank battles took place, but otherwise coalition troops encountered minimal resistance, as most Iraqi troops surrendered. The general pattern was that the Iraqis would put up a short fight before surrendering.
However, Iraqi air defenses shot down nine US aircraft. Meanwhile, forces from Arab states advanced into Kuwait from the east, encountering little resistance and suffering few casualties.
Despite the successes of coalition forces, it was feared that the Iraqi Republican Guard would escape into Iraq before it could be destroyed.
It was decided to send British armored forces into Kuwait 15 hours ahead of schedule, and to send US forces after the Republican Guard.
The coalition advance was preceded by a heavy artillery and rocket barrage, after which , troops and 1, tanks began their advance.
Iraqi forces in Kuwait counterattacked against US troops, acting on a direct order from Saddam Hussein himself. Despite the intense combat, the Americans repulsed the Iraqis and continued to advance towards Kuwait City.
Kuwaiti forces were tasked with liberating the city. Iraqi troops offered only light resistance. The Kuwaitis quickly liberated the city despite losing one soldier and having one plane shot down.
However, an Iraqi unit at Kuwait International Airport appeared not to have received the message and fiercely resisted. US Marines had to fight for hours before securing the airport, after which Kuwait was declared secure.
After four days of fighting, Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait. As part of a scorched earth policy, they set fire to nearly oil wells and placed land mines around the wells to make extinguishing the fires more difficult.
The war's ground phase was officially designated Operation Desert Saber. These eight-man patrols landed behind Iraqi lines to gather intelligence on the movements of Scud mobile missile launchers, which could not be detected from the air, as they were hidden under bridges and camouflage netting during the day.
The operations were designed to prevent any possible Israeli intervention. Due to lack of sufficient ground cover to carry out their assignment, One Zero and Three Zero abandoned their operations, while Two Zero remained, and was later compromised, with only Sergeant Chris Ryan escaping to Syria.
Elements of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division of the US Army performed a direct attack into Iraq on 15 February , followed by one in force on 20 February that led directly through seven Iraqi divisions which were caught off guard.
It was a feint attack, designed to make the Iraqis think that a coalition invasion would take place from the south.
The Iraqis fiercely resisted, and the Americans eventually withdrew as planned back into the Wadi Al-Batin. Three US soldiers were killed and nine wounded, with one M2 Bradley IFV turret destroyed, but they had taken 40 prisoners and destroyed five tanks, and successfully deceived the Iraqis.
On 22 February , Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council.
The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, [ citation needed ] and gave 24 hours for Iraq to withdraw its forces.
On 23 February, fighting resulted in the capture of Iraqi soldiers. On 24 February, British and American armored forces crossed the Iraq—Kuwait border and entered Iraq in large numbers, taking hundreds of prisoners.
Iraqi resistance was light, and four Americans were killed. This movement's left flank was protected by the French Division Daguet. The st Airborne Division conducted a combat air assault into enemy territory.
The French force quickly overcame Iraq's 45th Infantry Division, suffering light casualties and taking a large number of prisoners, and took up blocking positions to prevent an Iraqi counterattack on the coalition's flank.
The movement's right flank was protected by the United Kingdom's 1st Armoured Division. Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the elite Republican Guard before it could escape.
The Iraqis resisted fiercely from dug-in positions and stationary vehicles, and even mounted armored charges.
Unlike many previous engagements, the destruction of the first Iraqi tanks did not result in a mass surrender. The Iraqis suffered massive losses and lost dozens of tanks and vehicles, while US casualties were comparatively low, with a single Bradley knocked out.
They took prisoners and inflicted heavy losses, defeating Iraq's 26th Infantry Division. While retreating from Kuwait, the Iraqi armed forces enacted what is known as a "scorched earth: policy", destroying anything of economic value.
The Iraq army subsequently set oil wells on fire in January and February of , and some of these fires were not extinguished until November of the same year.
Casualties from both sides were vastly different, as the United States held a distinct advantage with their superior air power and technology.
The United States and other Coalition troops sustained troop deaths and injuries on the battlefield. The Iraqi army suffered many, many more casualties with numbers ranging from 20,, deaths and as much as 75, injured during Operation Desert Storm.
This war was the first conflict to be broadcast live around-the-clock, and many media scholars maintain that the coverage of the war was similar to that of a video game, effectively desensitizing the mainstream public to seeing live killings and military operations broadcast on news networks.
On November 29, , the U. The U. The Iraqi air force was either destroyed early on or opted out of combat under the relentless attack.
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